Żarnów, located in the area of Opoczyńskie Hills (Wzgórza Opoczyńskie), at the Węglanka River, is mentioned in the written sources as early ago as in 1065, in the so-called Falsyfikat Mogileński. Żarnów is described among the castles of Central Poland. A similar note we can find in the so-called Bulla Gnieźnieńska (papal bulla) of 1136. Both sources are recognized in historiography as confirmation of the existence of the castle and the administration center of The Piasts State. Beginnings of the Żarnów castle should be associated with The First Piasts Monarchy (the 2nd half of the 10th century – the 1st half of the 11th century), or rather with the moment of reconstruction and reorganization of the state administration system in the 2nd half of the 11th century.
Problem of medieval Żarnów Castle should be seen as a part of broader issue related to the so-called Kasztelanie Zapilickie (Pilica region castellans districts) – a group of three medieval administrative centers: Żarnów, Skrzynno and Małogoszcz. In Polish historiography issues of their genesis and the original association with the provinces of Łęczyca, Mazovia or Sandomierz are widely debated. In 1191 the church (capella) in Żarnów is mentioned among the churches owned by the collegiate church in Sandomierz. This date is close to the period of church foundation, which is probably connected with Casimir the Just
(Kazimierz Sprawiedliwy) – Duke of Wiślica, Cracow and Sandomierz. In the year 1224 Falibóg, castellan of Żarnów, is mentioned. In 1243, in the document of Konrad Mazowiecki, Palatinus (leader) of Żarnów is mentioned. Finally, in the 13th century, Żarnów became part of the Duchy of Sandomierz (then Sandomierz voivodeship). Title of the Żarnów Castellan survived until the end of the First Republic. In those times nearby town of Opoczno became the administrative center of the region.
Report from surveys in Żarnów (in Polish): text – illustrations
Posts about Żarnów can be find in „Tag Cloud” of this blog
Western part of interior of the 12 century church of Żarnów.
Eastern, gothic part of the church builtd in the beginning of 16 century.